Working for technological empowerment and sustainable livelihoods at the grass root levels.
Selected Replicable Technology Models for Rural Application
Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles


In India there is an acute shortage of locally available cheap roofing materials. Home-builders particularly the poor, are in dire need of cost-effective materials to build their homes with. In addition, mass rural housing programmes supported by Central and State Governments are increasingly looking at low-cost building techniques. In urban slums, development authorities involved in upgradation are offering schemes for replacement of roof primarily to ensure protection against rain, to enable proper electricity connections and protect families against fires. Conventionally available materials do not offer acceptable solutions. Prices of corrugated G.I. sheets are continuously escalating, and their use in not preferred because of thermal discomfort. Use of cement sheets is not recommended because of health hazards associated with asbestos. The cost of fired clay tiles is increasing rapidly due to rising costs of clay and energy used for firing.


A global shift from Fibre Concrete Roofing (FCR) tiles to Micro Concrete Roofing (MCR) tiles occurred after R&D showed that appropriate production techniques such as choice of sand, aggregates and vibration characteristics would lead to elimination of fibre in tile production resulting in enhancement of quality of tiles. MCR tiles are made of cement, sand, fine aggregates and water.


Financial Analysis of Micro Concrete Roofing Tile Business (in Rs.)


Equipment Cost


Curing tank


Cost of production for 2 months


Interest on fixed capital for 2 months




Loan from Financial Institutions


Total personal investment



Development Alternatives (Delhi) has undertaken considerable work in the development and transfer of this technology. The strategy to transfer MCR technology revolves around the establishment of micro-enterprises in rural areas. The measurable indicators used for assessment are: easy and wide access to affordable roofing, increased employment opportunities, improved resource utilization and positive environmental impact. After successfully setting up rural entrepreneurs, tapping the urban market is undertaken. Second generation entrepreneurs having brand name are selected through technical consultancy organizations like MITCON. Market research has helped in focussing on selected regions for deeper interventions. DA now plays the role of a Technology Support Service provider to entrepreneurs and technical consulting organizations, offer equipment, training, after-sales service, technical assistance and marketing support.



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Technology Models for
Rural Application
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